Patho Pharm 2 Course Page

Below are the topics, handouts, and notes for Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I. If you click on the title of a topic, you will be taken to the lecture files (mp3) for that topic. Alternatively, you may download the lectures as a zip file or subscribe as a podcast.

Patho Pharm 2 Lectures: Podcast Feed Subscribe with iTunes Download as Zip File (447 MB)


The podcasts in this section are reviews for the final exam. This section is also a place to put the syllabus and other class handouts.

Patho Pharm 2 Syllabus

Important Notes

  1. The So you think you’re good test is a minimum expectation of what you should know and be able to analyze after taking Patho Pharm 1 and 2. If you can consistently score 100% on it, the rest of nursing school will be a breeze. If you struggle with it you will struggle with the rest of nursing school.
  2. Herbals do not appear on any podcast but will be on the Final Exam.


  1. Quiz 1 – Diabetes and Endocrine
  2. Quiz 2 – Renal and Musculoskeletal
  3. Quiz 3 – Cardiovascular
  4. Quiz4 – Neuro, Genetics, HIV
  5. Quiz5 – GI, Cancer

Class Handouts:

Test and Final Exam Reviews

Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review 1 Final Exam Review 2 Final Exam Review 3 This is a Q&A of drugs from Patho Pharm 1. It was recorded by a student, so the sound quality is not very good. I cleaned it up and amplified the voices, but there’s still a lot of background noise. Review of the So You Think You’re Good test. This is a minimum expected competency. I expect that you can do this cold, in your sleep. So get cracking.

Test 1


  • 1/3 Genetics and HIV
  • 2/3 Neuro (1/2 drugs, 1/2 patho)


  • Purpose of DNA
  • Transcription
  • Translation
  • Human Genome (23 pairs, X, Y, etc.)
  • Epigenetics (Purpose, mechanisms, and some examples) might want to read the articles
  • Inheritance patterns (Autosomal Dominant/Recessive, X-linked, Polygenic, Multifactorial)
  • Gene Therapy


  • Lifecycle of HIV
  • How it infects CD4 cells
  • HIV vs AIDS
  • Criteria for AIDS
  • Lab Tests for Dx and management
  • Patterns of transmission in U.S. vs rest of world.
  • Goals for treatment
  • Medications
  • Risk factors
  • controversies


  • Know the cause, symptoms, treatment of every disease listed.
  • The longer the material, the more questions on that material
  • Know the major drug classes
  • Know depression, anxiety, OCD, bipolar (the brief amount we did in class)
  • Know the mechanism of neural transmission (resting/action potential)
  • Know the mechanism of how a neuron decides to fire in the first place

Areas of Difficulty

  1. What is psychosis?
  2. Keppra
  3. Need to know mechanisms of action of drugs. Weakest on TCAs, Wellbutrin, and Typical Antipsychotics
  4. Seizures caused by undertreatment
  5. DT onset: see VoiceThread
  6. Use of Benztropine (Cogentin) with typical psychotics
  7. Levodopa: acute loss of effect vs wearing off
  8. MAO inhibitor: what to avoid
  9. Anticholinergic effects!!!!!!
  10. Lithium toxicity
  11. Signs of liver toxicity
  12. Parkinson’s treatment
  13. Guillain-Barre
  14. Epigentics
  15. Horácio Quiroga short story
  16. Identifying negative symptoms
  17. Bipolar treatment
  18. Adverse effects of Wellbutrin
  19. Teens and depression

Test 2

  • Osteo: gradual wearing away of cartilage. Older adults. Typically affects large joints (knees, hips) and excessive weight or use accelerates. Little inflammation. Typically feels worse as day goes on. Progression: APAP -> NSAIDS -> Opioids -> Joint replacement.
  • Rheumatoid: Type III autoimmune disease. Younger patients. Typically affect smaller joints such as hands/fingers. Nodules. Eventually causes deformity. NSAIDS plus immune modulators.
  • Gout: excess uric acid in blood crystallizes causing episodic flares with excruciating pain and inflammation. Most commonly affects joint of large toe.
    1. Acute treatment: NSAID plus Colchicine. Colchicine inhibits white blood cells migration to area of inflammation. Taken every 2 hours. Typically take it until the pain subsides or patient can’t stand diarrhea. Can cause agranulocytosis.
    2. Chronic treatment: reduce high purine foods (turns into uric acid): Red wine, red meat, sea food. Allopurinol increases secretion of uric acid. **CAUTION** Allopurinol also causes blood to become more acidic. If a flare is in progress, it can increase the crystallization of uric acid, making the flare worse. So, never start Allpurinol during a flare. If a patient is already on it, then keep them on it.
Areas of Challenge:
  • What constitutes intensive insulin therapy
  • Kidney stones U/A
  • Bone scan vs bone density.
  • Loss of height for osteoporosis
  • Smoking doesn’t cause diabetes, nor does high fat diet
  • CAD risk factors FTW
  • Which drugs reduce insulin resistance
  • Ya gotta know the treatment goal for A1C
  • Polys are ACUTE symptoms of fairly HIGH blood sugar. -opathys are chronic complications that occur even with slightly high blood sugars after a long period of time.
  • Proteinuria occurs long long long before elevated creatinine
  • Acarbose priority education
  • Goiter U.S. vs world!!!
  • Thyroxine or cytomel
  • Cushing Cushings
  • Pharmacological effects of steroids!!
  • Mechanisms of drugs!!!
  • Which drugs cause hypoglycemia
  • Insulin: what labs to monitor
  • Review from PP1: What is flail chest?
  • Pre, intra, postrenal failure
  • Complications of chronic renal failure
  • How does kidney control acid-base
  • Sodium-potassium pump
  • UTI vs Pyelonephritis

Test 3

There are about 65 questions total. About half patho/half pharm

You need to know the following areas: General:

  • overall CV components (pipes, pump, and fluid)
  • control mechanisms (sympathetic, renal, RAAS, ANP/BNP, endothelium, Starling’s law, etc.)
  • All the CV drugs plus the ones from last semester that are pertinent such as anti-clotting drugs.


  • low and high


  • angina: stable, Prinzmetal, and unstable
  • MI dx and treatment
  • atherosclerosis
  • cholesterol (what they are, what each type is/means and treatment guidelines)


  • ECG characteristics of each one
  • What goes wrong in the body for each one
  • How each one is treated
  • On the quizzes, there are several ECG strips. The quiz questions ask you what the rhythm is. On your test you will have the exact same strips but will be asked what the symptoms are or what the treatment is.

Heart Failure

  • Shock and Chronic heart failure
  • mechanisms
  • systolic/diastolic, left/right
  • treatment

Things from Patho/Pharm 1 you might want to remember:

  • Neuro
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Electrolytes
  • Acid-Base
  • Anemia
  • Anti-clotting drugs

Areas of Weakness

  1. Atherogenesis steps
  2. Big five drugs for heart failure
  3. A Fib and cardiac output
  4. ICU treatment of HF vs Med-Surg
  5. Conditions necessary for atherogenesis
  6. MI standard of care aimed at reducing workload of the heart
  7. ACE inhibitors in DM
  8. Hypertensive crisis
  9. Calcium channel blockers plus HF è Death
  10. Number one cause of death 72 hours after MI
  11. Thrombolysis
  12. Diastolic/Systolic failure
  13. Beta blocker education
  14. Potassium supplementation
  15. CCB adverse effects
  16. ACE inhibitor adverse effects
  17. Cholesterol screening guidelines
  18. Shock

Test 4

Here is the Study guide for Test 4. Remember. We will not be going over HIV in class. There is a “VoiceThread” presentation to watch and you may comment or ask questions on it.
GI ~40 questions
Cancer ~20 quesstions
HIV ~10 questions
Upper GI:
Swallowing problems and major interventions
GERD: problems, Barrett’s, treatments (lifestyle, drugs and, surgery)
Ulcers: gastric vs duodenal, causes, treatments
H pylori tests/treatments
Nausea: causes/treatments
Lower GI
Diarrhea: general, and treatments for specific and non-specific
IBD: similarities and differences; treatments; diverticulitis vs osis
Lower intestine weirdnesses (volvulus, intuesseption, ileus, etc.)
Hepatitis: 3 viruses, alcoholic
Cirrhosis, liver failure, portal hypertension
Pancreatitis chronic and acute are different!!!
hallmarks of cancer
basics of cancer genetics

Areas of weakness in the past:

  1. You need to read up on ischemic (stress) ulcers, also called Curling Ulcers: causes and prevention
  2. Barrett’s esophagus
  3. Interpretation of IgG and IgM
  4. Lactulose plus ______
  5. Chronic vs Acute Pancreatitis
  6. Encephalopathy prevention vs treatment
  7. Bilirubin interpretation
  8. Phenergan adverse effects. Which is more important, something that almost everyone gets that can cause accidents, or something very rare that although permanent, is just a nuisance?
  9. Clindamycin induced diarrhea? What could be the cause of that? What would be used to treat it?
  10. Diarrhea, when to treat orally vs aggressive therapy
  11. Small Bowel obstructions
  12. Most common laxative post op
  13. Diagnostic test for Mg containing laxatives
  14. Conservative vs aggressive therapy for diverticulitis
  15. I did not know that THC causes multiple personality d/o
  16. Bone scan. We went over this one for Test 2. It’s a nuclear medicine test that detects bone metabolism. Hot spots are indicative of cancer. Cold spots of necrosis.
  17. Myeloma produces large amounts of antibodies, which are protein. So what lab value would high?
  18. Calcium Carbonate adverse effects: constipation
  19. Why are patients with no ulcers or GERD given H2 blockers or PPIs in the hospital?
  20. ANC interpretation
  21. E coli symptoms
  22. Someone calls in about diarrhea, and you tell them what to do without asking about what the stool looks like?
  23. How does AZT work

Kaplan Review

I’ve looked at the test and here are some pointers:

  1. There are quite a few drug calculation questions. Study up on your math.
  2. In terms of content the test is pretty decent, and we’ve covered most of what’s on it. Here are some things that you may want to review:
    1. How to administer meds: TechSkill stuff like IV, IM, Inhalers, SL, otic drops, ophthalmic drops, topical, transdermal. Keep in mind that sometimes you think a question is asking you about a specific med but really it’s asking you about appropriate general technique for the route of admission. The harder questions are combining both.
    2. Blood transfusions
    3. Tuberculosis drugs and therapy
    4. Rheumatoid diseases like Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
    5. Drugs used in alcohol addiction
    6. Fluid and electrolytes
    7. There are a few questions on drugs used at birth. You should be able to figure most of them out just from your general pharmacology knowledge, so don’t be intimidated. The one exception is drugs used for Rh incompatibility.
    8. You may want to read the section on muscle relaxants (it’s only 2 pages and we didn’t really cover it in PP1).
  3. One more thing to keep in mind is that these types of tests often used older drugs, whereas in class we use more commonly used drugs. It shouldn’t be a problem as long as you remember what class the drugs belong to.
  4. Focused reviews to do in preparation
    1. Pharmacology
    2. Parenteral therapy
    3. Drug calculations

Neuro (Central)

Review peripheral nervous system Big CNS disorders: Alzheimer’s, Epilepsy, Parkinson’s Psych Drugs: Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, Hypnotics, Antipsychotics Miscellaneous nervous disorders Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Neuro Intro Lecture

Neuro Intro: A&P, Diagnostic tests

Psychotropics Lectures

Psychotropics 1: Antidepressants Psychotropics 2: Sedative-hypnotics, Anxiolytics Psychotropics 3: Benzodiazepines cont, Hypnotics, Barbiturates, Anxiolytics Psychotropics 4 – Katie Taylor discusses psychotropics from the perspective of a student that has taken Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing

Neuro Disorders Lectures

Neuro Diseases 1: Parkinson’s disease Neuro Diseases 2: Alzheimer’s disease Neuro Diseases 3: Alzheimer’s recap, Epilepsy Neuro Diseases 4: Epilepsy cont, Seizure drugs Neuro Diseases 5: Brain trauma, Stroke Neuro Diseases 6: Stroke continued, Meningitis (Story referenced in the lecture.), Encephalitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-Barre, ALS


DNA and Protein synthesis Simple Mendelian genetics, polygenic inheritance, Multifactorial inheritance Common genetic disorders Epigenetics Emerging trends

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Genetics Lectures

Genetics 1 Heredity: Genes, Karyotype, DNA: chromatin, chromosome, Protein Synthesis: codon, transcription, translation, mutations

Genetics 2 Heredity: Inheritance: Autosomal dominant, Autosomal recessive

Genetics 3 Heredity: Inheritance Cont: Sex-linked, Polygenic inheritance, Multifactorial; Genetic Testing, Genetic Therapies, Congenital (Non-Genetic) Defects


Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS There is an updated lecture on VoiceThread.
Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Additional Notes and Resources

Because the overwhelming majority of patients with HIV in the U.S. contracted it sexually, they also tend to have other STDs. Herpes in particular is very common and much nastier. Tuberculosis is also very common. Life Cycle Video (includes how the drugs work) Rapid HIV Tests


Now you can test yourself in the comfort of your own home:

House of Numbers Documentary:

Clip we saw in Class

Full (hour long interview) with Luc Montagier

Documentary on ELISA and rapid testing

Interestingly, when you see a claim that an HIV test is 99.9% sensitive and specific, what they’re testing it against is other HIV tests, not the actual presence of the HIV virus. Interestingly, all immunoassays are susceptible to cross-reactivity, and areas with high levels of parasites (malaria, shistosomoiasis, etc., such as sub-saharan Africa) will have a high number of false positives. PCR (Viral load) supposedly detects a fragment of viral RNA that is unique to HIV (but has never been isolated, however, AIDS patients who are worse off have higher levels). So the idea is that by targeting treatment at viral load, we can reduce the likelihood of progressing to AIDS.


The Ryan White Story

True story about a boy with hemophilia who contracts AIDS.


And the Band Played On

Dramatization about some of the political and research issues surround the early days of HIV/AIDS


And if you want a movie that will make me cry guaranteed (not HIV related):


Diabetes is a BIG topic. It’s actually several diseases, all characterized by high blood sugar. You have to know the acute and chronic results of high blood sugar, plus the intricacies of the two major forms of the disease (which are nothing alike) AND the treatments and drugs.

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Diabetes Patho

Diabetes 1: Basic definitions and glucose physiology. Hormones: insulin, glucagon. Types and causes of Diabetes: Type I, Type II, Gestational, Cushing’s

Diabetes 2: Insulin Resistance. Symptoms and pathophysiology of hyperglycemia. Ketoacidosis: KEY Items: Bicarb low, Potassium is low (because of the urine issue) (I say it wrong on the audio), ketouria, kussmaul breathing, fruity breath

Diabetes 3: Macrovascular complications. Diagnosing diabetes: update HgbA1C is now an option for screening and diagnosis. Dawn Phenomenon vs Somogyi effect (patho and treatment). Acute Hyperglycemia. Type I diabetes.

Diabetes 4: Type I continued. Type II diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome. Incretin and Amylin.

Diabetes 5: Type II diabetes continued. Treatment approaches.

Diabetes Pharmacology

Diabetes Treatments 1: Insulin.

Diabetes Treatments 2: Insulin therapy continued. Ignore Exubera (it’s no longer on the market). Sidebar physician hand writing. Insuling regimens.

Diabetes Treatments 3: Insulin Treatment Complications. Oral Hypoglycemics: Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Metformin.

Diabetes Treatments 4: Oral Hypoglycemics recap and continue


Endocrine disorders and treatments Main two are hyper/hypothyroid And hyper/hypo Cortisol (Cushing’s/Addision’s) Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Endocrine Lectures

Endocrine 1: Thyroid physiology, Hypothyroid, Hyperthyroid,

Endocrine 2: Hyperthyroid cont, Hyperprolactinemia, SIADH, Diabetes, insipidus, Cortisol and Steroid Medications, Aldosterone


Osteoporosis And arthritis (no notes or podcasts for arthritis) Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Osteporosis Lectures

Osteoporosis 1: Calcium regulation and hormones. Thinking like a detective Osteoporosis 2: Bone function, growth, and remodeling. Misc Skeletal disorders. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis 3: Prevention and Treatment

Renal and Diuretics

Fluid and Renal physiology Kidney Diseases Diuretics Class notes:

Renal Lectures

Renal 1: Renal Physiology, Renal & Fluid Assessment Renal 2: Diuretics, Loop, Thiazide, Potassium sparing, Osmotic; Renal insufficiency Renal 3: Kidney Disorders Renal 4: Renal Failure: Acute and Chronic Renal 5


This is the biggest unit this semester and extremely important. For those of you who don’t deserve to be nurses, you’ll get a chance to redeem yourself (hint, the answer is aspirin). This unit builds heavily on last semester and renal. Review the peripheral nervous system, inflammation, and anticoagulants/antiplatelets. You will also need to memorize the CK-MB and Troponin lab values. The unit is broken up into:

  • Blood pressure
  • Arterial and venous diseases
  • Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction
  • Dysrhythmias and Heart Failure

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Blood Pressure and Treatment Lectures

Blood pressure 1: Blood pressure intro. Anatomy and Physiology

Blood pressure 2: Physiology continued. Preload and afterload

Blood pressure 3: Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System. Hypertension Etiologies

Blood pressure drugs 1: Methods of lowering blood pressure. ACE inhibitors

Blood pressure drugs 2: ARBs. Calcium channel blockers. Review of neuro antihypertensives: Beta blockers, alpha blockers, clonidine

Blood pressure drugs 3: Vasodilators, Treatment of Hypertension

Blood pressure drugs 4: Hypertension treatment strategies

Vascular Diseases

Arterial diseases 1: Arterial diseases such as high blood pressure and embolism. Atherosclerosis.

Arterial diseases 2: Endothelial dysfunction, Claudication, Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke

Arterial diseases 3 and venous diseases: Review, Raynaud’s disease, Varicosities, DVT

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary Artery Diseases: Risk factors, Oxygen demand/supply, Starling’s Law of the Heart

Coronary Artery Diseases 2: Angina pectoris, Acute MI, Case study assignment

Coronary Artery Diseases 3: Treatment of Acute MI

Coronary Artery Diseases 4: Treatment of Acute MI continued

Coronary Artery Diseases 5: Treatment of Acute MI cont

CV drug – Nitroglycerine

Clotting review: Review of clotting process and drugs from Patho Pharm 1

Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Cholesterol 1: Cholesterol overview, Testing, Treatment goals, Statins

Cholesterol 2: Cardiovascular risk factors and treatment goals, Statins


Dysrhythmias 1: Normal physiology, ECGs, Types of dysrhythmias

Dysrhythmias 2: Dysrhythmias continued, Drugs and other treatments

Dysrhythmias 3: Last minute dysrhythmias wrap up

Heart Failure

Heart Failure 1: Digoxin, Physiological response to lowered cardiac output

Heart Failure 2: Types of heart failure. Etiology

Heart Failure 3: Symptoms, Evaluation, Treatment

Cardiovascular Review

Cardiovascular Review 01 – Review of Hypertension.

Cardiovascular Review 02 – Review of Coronary Artery Disease including atherosclerosis, stable angina, unstable angina, and myocardial infarction.

Cardiovascular Review 03 – Review of Cholesterol, structure, screening, therapeutic targets and brief review of drugs.

Cardiovascular Review 04 – Review of chronic heart failure.

Cardiovascular Review 05 – Review of dysrhythmias.


Falls into three main areas: Upper GI (Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum) Lower GI (Colon) Accessory GI (Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas)

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Upper GI Lectures

Upper GI 1: Dysphagia, GERD, Delayed Gastric Emptying Upper GI 2: PUD, Partial Gastrectomy Upper GI 3: H2 blockers, PPIs, Antacids Upper GI 4: Vomiting, Antiemetics

Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas Lectures

Additional Notes

When Diverticulosis becomes Diverticulitis Asymptomatic → Symptomatic High fiber diet → Liquid diet plus antibiotics and pain management

  • In mild episodes, a clear liquid diet is advised. Clinical improvement should occur within 2-3 days, and the diet can then be advanced as tolerated.
  • Administer nothing by mouth in episodes of moderate-to-severe acute diverticulitis.
  • Studies imply a high-fiber diet will prevent progression of diverticulosis. However, after patients have become symptomatic, the benefit of fiber supplementation is less clear. Recommending to patients to avoid seeds and nuts is currently less common, since it is now thought that seeds and nuts may not play a significant role in the development of diverticulitis, as believed in the past.
  • Long-term management probably includes a high-fiber, low-fat diet.


Cellular Adaptations and Neoplasms Pathogenesis and Manifestations of Cancer Basic Chemotherapy principles

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

Cancer Lectures

Cancer 1: Cellular Adaptations to injury, Basic Definitions and Classifications, Benign vs Malignant, Tumor Markers, Oncogenesis Cancer 2: Oncogenes, Risk factors, Staging, Metastasis, Host-Cancer Interactions (Manifestations) Cancer 3: Manifestations continued, Diagnosis, Treatment

Additional Cancer Resources