Pathophysiology Pharmacology 2

Patho Pharm 2 Course Page

Below are the topics, handouts, and notes for Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I. If you click on the title of a topic, you will be taken to the lecture files (mp3) for that topic. Alternatively, you may download the lectures as a zip file or subscribe as a podcast.

Patho Pharm 2 Lectures: Podcast Feed Subscribe with iTunes Download as Zip File (447 MB)


The podcasts in this section are reviews for the final exam. This section is also a place to put the syllabus and other class handouts.

Patho Pharm 2 Syllabus

Important Notes

  1. The So you think you’re good test is a minimum expectation of what you should know and be able to analyze after taking Patho Pharm 1 and 2. If you can consistently score 100% on it, the rest of nursing school will be a breeze. If you struggle with it you will struggle with the rest of nursing school.
  2. Herbals do not appear on any podcast but will be on the Final Exam.


  1. Quiz 1 – Diabetes and Endocrine
  2. Quiz 2 – Renal and Musculoskeletal
  3. Quiz 3 – Cardiovascular
  4. Quiz4 – Neuro, Genetics, HIV
  5. Quiz5 – GI, Cancer

Class Handouts:

Final Exam Lectures

  • Title 3
  • Test 4
Final Exam Review 1 Final Exam Review 2 Final Exam Review 3

This is a Q&A of drugs from Patho Pharm 1. It was recorded by a student, so the sound quality is not very good. I cleaned it up and amplified the voices, but there’s still a lot of background noise. Review of the So You Think You’re Good test. This is a minimum expected competency. I expect that you can do this cold, in your sleep. So get cracking.

Here is the Study guide for Test 4.  Remember. We will not be going over HIV in class.  There is a “VoiceThread” presentation to watch and you may comment or ask questions on it.
GI  ~40 questions
Cancer ~20 quesstions
HIV ~10 questions
Upper GI:
Swallowing problems and major interventions
GERD: problems, Barrett’s, treatments (lifestyle, drugs and, surgery)
Ulcers: gastric  vs duodenal, causes, treatments
H pylori tests/treatments
Nausea: causes/treatments
Lower GI
Diarrhea: general, and treatments for specific and non-specific
IBD: similarities and differences; treatments; diverticulitis vs osis
Lower intestine weirdnesses (volvulus, intuesseption, ileus, etc.)
Hepatitis: 3 viruses, alcoholic
Cirrhosis, liver failure, portal hypertension
Pancreatitis chronic and acute are different!!!
hallmarks of cancer
basics of cancer genetics
dx (lab tests, etc)
lifecycle of HIV
treatment of HIV (drugs and goal)
risk factors for HIV

Areas of weakness in the past:

  1. You need to read up on ischemic (stress) ulcers, also called Curling Ulcers: causes and prevention
  2. Barrett’s esophagus
  3. Interpretation of IgG and IgM
  4. Lactulose plus ______
  5. Chronic vs Acute Pancreatitis
  6. Encephalopathy prevention vs treatment
  7. Bilirubin interpretation
  8. Phenergan adverse effects.  Which is more important, something that almost everyone gets that can cause accidents, or something very rare that although permanent, is just a nuisance?
  9. Clindamycin induced diarrhea?  What could be the cause of that?  What would be used to treat it?
  10. Diarrhea, when to treat orally vs aggressive therapy
  11. Small Bowel obstructions
  12. Most common laxative post op
  13. Diagnostic test for Mg containing laxatives
  14. Conservative vs aggressive therapy for diverticulitis
  15. I did not know that THC causes multiple personality d/o
  16. Bone scan.  We went over this one for Test 2.  It’s a nuclear medicine test that detects bone metabolism.  Hot spots are indicative of cancer.  Cold spots of necrosis.
  17. Myeloma produces large amounts of antibodies, which are protein.  So what lab value would high?
  18. Calcium Carbonate adverse effects: constipation
  19. Why are patients with no ulcers or GERD given H2 blockers or PPIs in the hospital?
  20. ANC interpretation
  21. E coli symptoms
  22. Someone calls in about diarrhea, and you tell them what to do without asking about what the stool looks like?
  23. How does AZT work

Neuro (Central)

Review peripheral nervous system
Big CNS disorders: Alzheimer’s, Epilepsy, Parkinson’s
Psych Drugs: Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, Hypnotics, Antipsychotics
Miscellaneous nervous disorders

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Neuro Intro Lecture
  • Psychotropics Lectures
  • Neuro Disorders Lectures
Psychotropics 1: Antidepressants Psychotropics 2: Sedative-hypnotics, Anxiolytics Psychotropics 3: Benzodiazepines cont, Hypnotics, Barbiturates, Anxiolytics Psychotropics 4 – Katie Taylor discusses psychotropics from the perspective of a student that has taken Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Neuro Diseases 1: Parkinson’s disease Neuro Diseases 2: Alzheimer’s disease Neuro Diseases 3: Alzheimer’s recap, Epilepsy Neuro Diseases 4: Epilepsy cont, Seizure drugs Neuro Diseases 5: Brain trauma, Stroke Neuro Diseases 6: Stroke continued, Meningitis (Story referenced in the lecture.), Encephalitis, Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-Barre, ALS


DNA and Protein synthesis
Simple Mendelian genetics, polygenic inheritance, Multifactorial inheritance
Common genetic disorders
Emerging trends

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Genetics Lectures
  • Additional Genetics Resources
Genetics 1 Heredity: Genes, Karyotype, DNA: chromatin, chromosome, Protein Synthesis: codon, transcription, translation, mutations Genetics 2 Heredity: Inheritance: Autosomal dominant, Autosomal recessive Genetics 3 Heredity: Inheritance Cont: Sex-linked, Polygenic inheritance, Multifactorial; Genetic Testing, Genetic Therapies, Congenital (Non-Genetic) Defects


Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

There is an updated lecture on VoiceThread.

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • HIV Lecture


Diabetes is a BIG topic. It’s actually several diseases, all characterized by high blood sugar. You have to know the acute and chronic results of high blood sugar, plus the intricacies of the two major forms of the disease (which are nothing alike) AND the treatments and drugs.

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Diabetes Patho
  • Diabetes Pharmacology

Diabetes 1: Basic definitions and glucose physiology. Hormones: insulin, glucagon. Types and causes of Diabetes: Type I, Type II, Gestational, Cushing’s Diabetes 2: Insulin Resistance. Symptoms and pathophysiology of hyperglycemia. Ketoacidosis: KEY Items: Bicarb low, Potassium is low (because of the urine issue) (I say it wrong on the audio), ketouria, kussmaul breathing, fruity breath Diabetes 3: Macrovascular complications. Diagnosing diabetes: update HgbA1C is now an option for screening and diagnosis. Dawn Phenomenon vs Somogyi effect (patho and treatment). Acute Hyperglycemia. Type I diabetes. Diabetes 4: Type I continued. Type II diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome. Incretin and Amylin. Diabetes 5: Type II diabetes continued. Treatment approaches.

Diabetes Treatments 1: Insulin. Diabetes Treatments 2: Insulin therapy continued. Ignore Exubera (it’s no longer on the market). Sidebar physician hand writing. Insuling regimens. Diabetes Treatments 3: Insulin Treatment Complications. Oral Hypoglycemics: Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Metformin. Diabetes Treatments 4: Oral Hypoglycemics recap and continue


Endocrine disorders and treatments
Main two are hyper/hypothyroid
And hyper/hypo Cortisol (Cushing’s/Addision’s)

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Endocrine Lectures
Endocrine 1: Thyroid physiology, Hypothyroid, Hyperthyroid, Endocrine 2: Hyperthyroid cont, Hyperprolactinemia, SIADH, Diabetes, insipidus, Cortisol and Steroid Medications, Aldosterone


And arthritis (no notes or podcasts for arthritis)

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Osteporosis
Osteoporosis 1: Calcium regulation and hormones. Thinking like a detective Osteoporosis 2: Bone function, growth, and remodeling. Misc Skeletal disorders. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis 3: Prevention and Treatment

Renal and Diuretics

Fluid and Renal physiology
Kidney Diseases

Class notes:


This is the biggest unit this semester and extremely important. For those of you who don’t deserve to be nurses, you’ll get a chance to redeem yourself (hint, the answer is aspirin). This unit builds heavily on last semester and renal. Review the peripheral nervous system, inflammation, and anticoagulants/antiplatelets. You will also need to memorize the CK-MB and Troponin lab values. The unit is broken up into:

  • Blood pressure
  • Arterial and venous diseases
  • Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction
  • Dysrhythmias and Heart Failure

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Blood Pressure and Treatment Lectures
  • Vascular Diseases
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
  • Dysrhythmias
  • Heart Failure
  • Cardiovascular Review
Blood pressure 1: Blood pressure intro. Anatomy and Physiology Blood pressure 2: Physiology continued. Preload and afterload Blood pressure 3: Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System. Hypertension Etiologies Blood pressure drugs 1: Methods of lowering blood pressure. ACE inhibitors Blood pressure drugs 2: ARBs. Calcium channel blockers. Review of neuro antihypertensives: Beta blockers, alpha blockers, clonidine Blood pressure drugs 3: Vasodilators, Treatment of Hypertension Blood pressure drugs 4: Hypertension treatment strategies
Arterial diseases 1: Arterial diseases such as high blood pressure and embolism. Atherosclerosis. Arterial diseases 2: Endothelial dysfunction, Claudication, Coronary Artery Disease, Stroke Arterial diseases 3 and venous diseases: Review, Raynaud’s disease, Varicosities, DVT
Coronary Artery Diseases: Risk factors, Oxygen demand/supply, Starling’s Law of the Heart Coronary Artery Diseases 2: Angina pectoris, Acute MI, Case study assignment Coronary Artery Diseases 3: Treatment of Acute MI Coronary Artery Diseases 4: Treatment of Acute MI continued Coronary Artery Diseases 5: Treatment of Acute MI cont CV drug – Nitroglycerine Clotting review: Review of clotting process and drugs from Patho Pharm 1
Cholesterol 1: Cholesterol overview, Testing, Treatment goals, Statins Cholesterol 2: Cardiovascular risk factors and treatment goals, Statins
Dysrhythmias 1: Normal physiology, ECGs, Types of dysrhythmias Dysrhythmias 2: Dysrhythmias continued, Drugs and other treatments Dysrhythmias 3: Last minute dysrhythmias wrap up
Heart Failure 1: Digoxin, Physiological response to lowered cardiac output Heart Failure 2: Types of heart failure. Etiology Heart Failure 3: Symptoms, Evaluation, Treatment
Cardiovascular Review 01 – Review of Hypertension. Cardiovascular Review 02 – Review of Coronary Artery Disease including atherosclerosis, stable angina, unstable angina, and myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular Review 03 – Review of Cholesterol, structure, screening, therapeutic targets and brief review of drugs. Cardiovascular Review 04 – Review of chronic heart failure. Cardiovascular Review 05 – Review of dysrhythmias.


Falls into three main areas:
Upper GI (Esophagus, Stomach, Duodenum)
Lower GI (Colon)
Accessory GI (Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas)

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Upper GI Lectures
  • Lower GI Lectures
  • IBD Lectures
  • Liver, Gall Bladder, Pancreas Lectures


Cellular Adaptations and Neoplasms
Pathogenesis and Manifestations of Cancer
Basic Chemotherapy principles

Class Handouts:

Class notes:

  • Cancer Lectures
  • Additional Cancer Resources
Cancer 1: Cellular Adaptations to injury, Basic Definitions and Classifications, Benign vs Malignant, Tumor Markers, Oncogenesis Cancer 2: Oncogenes, Risk factors, Staging, Metastasis, Host-Cancer Interactions (Manifestations) Cancer 3: Manifestations continued, Diagnosis, Treatment


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