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Neuman, B. & Young, R. (1972). A model for teaching total person approach to patient problems. Nursing Research, 21, 264-269.

This article was the first article that conceptualized the Betty Neuman Systems Theory. In this article, a "model for teaching total person approach to patient problems" was discussed. Neuman and Young (1972) discuss the model as a way to teach graduate-level clinical nurse specialist students the holistic way to assess and view the whole-total person. The article provides a conceptual model which is very similar to the model that is in use today. The article gives brief descriptions of the model and the various components of the model. The client was said to be multi-dimensional and factors such as physiological, socio-cultural, developmental, and psychological effect the client system. The 'basic structure/energy resources' are considered either universal to all humans or unique to the individual. An example of this was either average body temperature or individual genetic patterns. The 'normal line of defense' represents the individual's normal state of adaptation over time. The flexible line of defense was referred to as "accordion-like" and flexible and dynamic. The flexible line of defense was said to be susceptible to situational circumstances such as amount of sleep, stress, and/or nutrition. The flexible line of defense expands or contracts in response to fight off stressors. If the stressor is able to penetrate the flexible line of defense and penetrate the normal line of defense, varying degrees of reaction can occur. The 'lines of resistance' are depended upon to help protect the basic strucutre/energy resources. An example of lines of resistance could be leukocytosis in response to invading microorganisms. Primary, secondary, and teritary prevention activities were also discussed in relation to how they interact with the lines of resistance. This article briefly discussed the course that was offered by Neuman & Young at the UCLA college of nursing, in which this model was proposed to be utilized. This article was very informative and presented a very in-depth look at the evolution of the Neuman Systems Model. It is interesting to note that later in the course of theory development, a fifth client variable (spirituality) was added to the Neuman Systems Model.

Neumans System's Model, written and presented by Patrick Heyman and Sandra Wolfe, University of Florida, April 2000