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Neuman's model is just that-a model, not a full theory. It is a conceptual framework, a visual representation, for thinking about humans and nurses and their interactions. The model views the person as a layered, multidimensional whole that is in constant dynamic interaction with the environment. The layers represent various levels of defense protecting the core being. The two major components in the model are stress reactions and systemic feedback loops. Client reacts to stress with lines of defense and resistance (Neuman, 1995). Continuous feedback loops fine-tune the lines of defense and resistance so as to achieve maximal level of stability. The client is in continuous and dynamic interaction with the environment. The exchanges between the environment and the client are reciprocal (each one is influenced by the other). The goal is to achieve optimal system stability and balance. Prevention is the main nursing intervention to achieve this balance. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities are used to attain, retain, and maintain system balance (George, 1996).

 



Neumans System's Model, written and presented by Patrick Heyman and Sandra Wolfe, University of Florida, April 2000