Neuman's model is just that-a model, not a full theory. It is a conceptual
framework, a visual representation, for thinking about humans and nurses
and their interactions. The model views the person as a layered, multidimensional
whole that is in constant dynamic interaction with the environment. The
layers represent various levels of defense protecting the core being.
The two major components in the model are stress reactions and systemic
feedback loops. Client reacts to stress with lines of defense and resistance
(Neuman, 1995). Continuous feedback loops fine-tune the lines of defense
and resistance so as to achieve maximal level of stability. The client
is in continuous and dynamic interaction with the environment. The exchanges
between the environment and the client are reciprocal (each one is influenced
by the other). The goal is to achieve optimal system stability and balance.
Prevention is the main nursing intervention to achieve this balance. Primary,
secondary, and tertiary prevention activities are used to attain, retain,
and maintain system balance (George, 1996).
Neumans System's Model, written and presented by Patrick
Heyman and Sandra Wolfe, University of Florida, April 2000