Okay, so which knife should I get?
There are a bajillion possibilities, but I will concentrate on two classes of knives: gateway knives and step up knives in the gyuto style. The gateway knife is under $100 and will whet your appetite for Japanese knives. You could live quite happily with it forever, or you may want to get a better quality knife—the step up knife. Step up knives generally range from $200-$300, (you can go as high as $1000, but you’re no longer paying for cutting performance; you’re paying for art.). Note that many knife makers have several lines of knives at different price points with different steels and quality.
This list is by no means exhaustive. It just lists a few of the more common recommendations.
- Tojiro DP gyuto. Tojiro’s have a reputation for being a phenomenal value, having great steel, and being very sharp right out of the box. This makes the Tojiro an awesome gateway knife. (Apparently many Japanese knife makers do not pre-sharpen their knives so the buyer or retailer can customize the edge.) On Amazon with Prime shipping, you can get the 210mm (8.2 inch) for $62, the 240mm (9.4 inch) for $73, and the 270mm (10.6 inch) for $95. You could get the 210 and the 240 for the same price as a Wusthof Classic 8 inch chef knife at $135.The steel scores about a 60 on the Rockwell scale and has a VG-10 clad with a softer steel. The Tojiro DPs have large boxy handles, and in the past the fit and finish of the knives have supposedly been underwhelming.
Update: The prices are now even more compelling: $50 for the 210mm, $58 for the 240mm, and $72 for the 270mm.
- Fujiwara FKM gyuto. The Fujiwara’s are a monosteel that is just a little softer than the Tojiro, and has a repuatation for inconsistent fit and finish (sometimes better than the Tojiro, sometimes worse). The handles are supposed to be better. The softer steel is easier to sharpen, but the edge won’t last as long. Cost is $83 on Chef Knives to Go for the 240mm.
- Richmond Artifex gyuto. Marc Richmond is the proprietor of Chef Knives to Go, and the Richmond is his house brand, meaning that he designed the knife, but it’s made by another company. The Artifex is the low-end of the Richmond line and the GT wa-gyuto can be had for ~$90 in 240mm. There is some controversy regarding the knives and the owner. Depending on who you listen to, the Artifex is either a great value, or so cheap because it’s—well, so cheap.
- Gesshin Gyuto in 210mm. Slightly out of our target-under-$100 range, but undeniable quality. If Mark Richmond is controversial, Jonathan Broida is the exact opposite. Gesshin is Jon’s house brand, and this is as inexpensive as his line gets at $105.
When it comes to destination knives, you have to decide whether you want to stick with a “do anything” knife or go for a more specialized knife. If you frequent the kitchen knife forums much, you’ll find talk of lasers which is a very thin, very light knife that cuts so easily, it might as well be a laser. The major downside of lasers is a propensity to bend in harder substances and their fragility.
First, for the “go to gyuto” I’ll just quote from boar_d_laze (BDL):
There are a lot of excellent “pro” knives in the next couple of price groups above the entry-levels — say, between $120 and $200. But, there’s also a lot more I’d like to know before making recommendations. Exactly how flexible is your budget for a chef’s knife and stones? Would you consider carbon (as opposed to stainless)? How about a semi-stainless tool steel (feel free to ask if you don’t know what that is)? Do you like very large or very small handles? Do you pinch grip? Claw? Cut and retreat? What’s your chopping style (German, French, push cut, don’t know)? Anything else you can tell me would help, too. “I don’t know” is a perfectly good answer.
In better than entry level stainless, I most often recommend Hiromoto G3, Kagayaki VG, MAC Pro, Masamoto VG, and Sakai Takayuki Grand Cheff… depending. In addition there are a lot of other great knives and several are bound to suit you…
The two knives I most often recommend for people more or less looking for the same things you are and with the same set of concerns [read the thread] are the MAC Pro and the Masamoto VG. The Kagayaki VG is more bang for the buck and uses a prestige alloy; but I don’t like its handle as much, nor the feel of its profile on the board, and there can be some issues with deburring.
The Masamoto has a profile as good as — and very much like — a Sabatier. In short, as good as it gets. There are some quality control issues, mostly centered around the handle, but these can be taken care of by the seller at time of purchase. You just have to make sure to tell them you want good F&F and a well-fitted handle before you give them your credit card number, and they’ll select a good one for you.
MACs are stiffer than any comparably thin gyuto and consequently feel more sturdier and more comfortable. The MAC Pro handle is the best I’ve ever used. F&F is typically very good — and if it’s not their warranty and U.S. support is almost in Henckels’ class. It’s the knife I recommend most often.
If you’re interested in a carbon steel gyuto, BDL raved about the Richmond Ultimatum Carbon wa-gyuto in 245mm for $199. Apparently it’s out of stock more than it’s in stock, so you may have to wait for it. Richmond also has a $99 Artifex 210mm Carbon Gyuto made from the same steel. As for the differences between the two knives other than the handle, 30mm of blade, and $100, you’ll have to ask Marc Richmond.
In BDL’s own words:
I’ve had a 52100 Ultimatum for not quite a year, and the more I use it the more I like it. In it’s own (and very different, robust) way, it’s as good as my Konosuke HDs [see below]. Last night I wanted to slice one (count them, one) tomato and was practically in tears because all I could find were my three Konos and a drawer full of Sabs [Sabatier]. Well maybe not tears, but my lower lip was trembling. It’s completely pushed the Sabs out of the rotation. It’s actually a lot like a Sab. Strong, agile, sweet-profile, comfortable, gets sharp, stays sharp, etc. But wa and a much better alloy. If you want to discuss it in more depth, of course we can.
Richmond’s expecting to get a lot in very soon; they don’t stay in stock long, but stay out of stock heap much plenty long. So if you’re thinking about jumping… Geronimo already…
If you’ve ever spent time with a carbon Sabatier chef’s knife, you have a very good idea of what to expect. The differences are that the Richmond has a wa-handle, weighs 3 ounces less, is balanced much further forward than a Sab, and is made of hugely better alloy.
Same sweet profile. Same lively feel on the board. Same indestructibility. Same versatility. Even more comfortable (although it took me awhile to get there). And there’s that alloy.
Takes a great edge, holds it a long time, can be steeled — but it won’t need it much. Fantastic feel on the stones. I’ve always been a carbon guy, 52100 is the best carbon I’ve ever used, and because of this knife it has become my favorite alloy. Which would matter a lot more if the differences between one really good alloy and another were significant, but they aren’t — not really.
I use my Ultimatum for everything; and that means things I wouldn’t dream of doing with the Kono, like trimming and portioning spareribs; and stupidly includes things I shouldn’t do, like splitting the occasional chicken. Bottom line: I’ve been abusing the knife for a year and haven’t hurt it yet.
The right face of the knife is convexed quite a bit. It should help keep food from sticking, but as a lefty it means nothing to me. On the other hand, my chopping action is a glide (which tends to knock stuff off) and I’m pretty conscientious about keeping the knife straight and moving it quickly, so I don’t have much of a problem with sticking anyway.
On the down side, the knife is a bit thick (but that’s the price you pay for anything that strong), and the blade came with some tool marks which were supposed to have been polished out by Richmond (the knife is made for them OEM by Lamson) but weren’t — although not much of a downside because fit and finish were otherwise very good to excellent. The cosmetics are mediocre.
The OOTB edge was adequate, 15*, minor convexing (probably incidental), 50/50 asymmetry, not much polish. I like my geometry much better, 12* flat bevel, 2:1 lefty, 8K finish. 8K is really too much, but I own the stone, so wotthehell. The ideal finish is probably somewhere in the 3K to 6K range. The asymmetry made a much larger positive difference than I’m used to mild asymmetry making — which may have something to do with the right-handed asymmetry of the blade’s grind, and/or may have been just enough to stop the knife from wedging. Whatever. I don’t know why it worked but it did. My advice to a left handed user is “you absolutely must,” and to a right handed user, “you should.”
It weighs 2 oz more than the Kono gyuto, 3 oz more than my 300mm Kono suji (which I use as a gyuto fairly frequently), and the Ultimatum not only feels quite a bit heavier than either Konosuke, but less neutrally balanced as well.
At the time I got the Ultimatum, I thought that I was beyond balance issues — but apparently having nothing but Konos and Sabs spoiled me. When I first started using it the knife felt awkward and heavy… with its balance point making it feel as heavy as one of my 10oz Sabs. Between that and the tool marks, I seriously considered sending it bacl. But after using it for a few hours, my grip adjusted a bit forward and I started to like the knife. After establishing my first edge, like turned to love; and although I never made a conscious effort, my grip kept evolving until the knife became an extension of my will; and it just keeps getting better and better.
Would I trade it for the Kono [see below] or vice versa? It’s not a decision I have to make, and am ecstatic not making it. If you’re asking me which would I recommend to someone buying one gyuto, the recommendation would be made on the basis of which class of knife — laser, robust, or something in between — would best suit. One size does not fit all. And in many cases, one size doesn’t even fit one.
Sharpening note: A well sharpened edge with lot of asymmetry — say 90/10 — will make the knife so sharp that it becomes difficult to handle. That is, unless you consciously hold it back it will fall through just about anything it touches. I prefer a more moderate asymmetry for its greater durability, and — it pains me to admit it — because I’m not as adaptable as I used to be, my skills are eroding and I don’t want a knife I have to think about.
And a review of the Konosuke HD2 ~$300
The Kono HD is a laser. The first thing to understand about a laser is that it’s a laser. You either want a laser or you don’t. They all have the same weaknesses, and most of them have the same strengths. While there are differences between the top stainless lasers as compared to one another, they are extremely subtle — if ever there were a “U Pickem,” this is it. And, the same is true about the the same thing about the top carbon lasers. There are minor differences in F&F and appearance, but the different identities of the various stainless alloys doesn’t mean anything in the way of performance; and I think all of the carbon lasers are made of the same alloy, White #2. If there’s one made of VS2, then same same.
The Kono HD2 (the “2” represents a minor upgrade to the alloy) is slightly apart from other lasers in that its semi-stainless alloys has the same pleasant feeling on the stones as a carbon laser while being nearly as stain resistant as any of the true stainless knives.
It’s extremely light because it’s a laser. Because it’s so light, it seems fairly well balanced. It gets ridiculously sharp, because it’s a laser. The edge seems to stay sharp even as it dulls, because it’s a laser. The knife should not be steeled because it’s a laser. It doesn’t wedge because it’s a laser. Food doesn’t stick to it because it’s a laser.
You need to be careful around bones, partly because it’s a laser and partly because that’s just how it is with alloys which are stronger than they are tough. It doesn’t stain easily because it’s HD. It has an extremely sweet feel on the stones, because it’s HD.
The profile is excellent, if not quite Sabatier.
Mine is a 270mm HD from the first production run and has a handle most people don’t like, but I like very much. I’ve never heard a complaint about the current handle, which is a well-done ho-wood octagon. You can get all sorts of semi-custom wa handles as extra cost upgrades if you want.
So there you have it. Generally speaking your first Japanese knife should be a gyuto. Future posts will include:
- Primer on Japanese Knives
- Choosing your first Japanese knife
- Review of my first Japanese knife, the Tojiro DP 240mm gyuto
- Sharpening process and tips
- Vendors, Experts, and Forum Denizens
“So I opted for the awesomeness of this Japanese steel you were talking about. I mean that Tojiro DP gyuto is cheap! … What? I can’t just sharpen it with a pull through sharpener? I can damage the blade with the steel that came with my Henckels set? I need “special” sharpening stones? How much are we talking here? MORE THAN THE KNIFE COSTS? WHY DID I LISTEN TO YOU?!?!?!?!”
Okay, so the Achilles heel of Japanese knives is how do you sharpen them? Well, you can ask me to do it for you, or you can get some waterstones and learn to do it yourself. Unfortunately, there are as many waterstones as there are knives, and the prices vary from $23 to $200. So what kind and how many does a young sharpener need?
This section is not going to talk about how to sharpen, but will just be a synthesis of what I have read (and maybe one experienced) about various common waterstones followed by some very general recommendations and some references.
First some vocabulary:
- Dish: when a stone becomes rounded in the middle (like a dish) from use. A dished stone will not sharpen as well.
- Flatten: Lowering high parts of a dished stone so that it is flat again. Can be accomplished by a specialized plate or by using drywall screen attached to a flat surface.
- Soaking: Many waterstones must be soaked in water to either work at all or work better.
- Splash and Go: Waterstones that don’t need to soaked (although sometimes soaking may enhance their performance).
- JIS: The Japanese Industrial Standard. Measure the grit size. The higher the number, the finer the grit. It is NOT equivalent to either sand paper or ANSI (American National Standards Institute) grits. Cut: the ability to wear away metal. Lower grits tend to cut faster than higher grits, but two stones at the same grit level may not cut at the same rate.
- Mud: as the stone wears, the particles build up on the surface. Some stones’ mud acts as a polisher that may function at a higher grit than it is nominally rated for.
- Nagura: A small stone used to smooth a waterstone and sometimes kickstart mud production.
- Combination stone: two stones of different grit joined together. Usually combination stones are thinner than two separate stones. Sometimes reflects a great value. Sometimes not.
- Speed: Not really a feature, but a performance description. Reflects how long or how many strokes it takes to sharpen a knife. A stone that is too aggressive or fast will wear a knife too quickly in the hands of an amateur. On the other hand, a stone that is too slow takes too many strokes and induces boredom, fatigue, and more opportunity to screw up. We want the Goldilocks principle. Just right…whatever that means.
- Feel: This one is very subjective, but the way a stone feels through the knife helps the sharpener know if the angels are right, how much steel has been removed, and affects how enjoyable the experience is.
- Size: A wider, longer stone will generally be easier to sharpen on than a narrower, shorter one. Thicker stones will generally last longer than thinner ones.
- Base/Baseless: Some stones come mounted on a wooden or plastic base. The base raises the stone slightly, and some people think they’re cool. But the base prevents you from being able to use both sides.
The first decision is synthetic vs. natural.
Natural stones tend to be softer and dish faster, and being a natural product, they vary wildly in character. The good ones tend to polish in a manner that synthetic stones can’t. They take more finesse to use properly. If you can’t pick your exact stone in the store, you want to make sure you buy from an informed and reputable source. A good return/exchange policy doesn’t hurt either.
Synthetic stones are more uniform, having a abrasive particles held together by a binding medium. The size and density of the medium combined with the type of binder will affect how the stone performs. Their consistency and predictability make them generally preferred for beginners. All of the stone below are synthetic stones. All of the prices reflect the 1000 grit unless otherwise specified.
King stones are some of the cheapest waterstones you can find. They tend to be relatively soft and dish fairly easily. Many people don’t like the way they feel, and some think they are rather slow. On the other hand, Murray Carter of CarterCutlery fame uses them in his DVDs and sells them on his site (although his prices are not the best). They can be a good starter stones due to their price, but others feel a faster stone would.
King Medium Grain Sharpening Stone – #1000 – $23 on Amazon.
Naniwa Super Stones (SS)
These stones are a step up from the King. They are harder and faster (but still relatively soft and slow compared to other stones), but still have a tendency to dish. They have a reputation for feeling great. They are considered splash and go, but many report that they work better with a short soak. They will crumble if left in water too long.
$45 at Chef’s Knives to Go
Naniwa Chosera (Sometimes spelled Chocera)
These stones were once described as the Sara Lee of waterstones. You might prefer a different stone, and you might get a better price or better performance from a different stone, but nobody doesn’t like Chosera. Generally regarded as an excellent stone, the main downside is their price. They are harder and faster than the Super Stones. They are splash and go and will crumble if kept in water.
$86 Chef’s Knives to Go
If you want an unqualified recommendation, I’ll give you this: IMHO the 1k Chocera is the best 1k stone in the world. That’s a whopper of a claim but I think it’s warranted. You could do it and the Suehiro Rika 5k for about $130 and have an absolutely fantastic combo that would do a superior job on carbon and stainless, hard and soft knives. There are other combos but I can pretty much guarantee that’s one you wouldn’t regret. You’ll be hard pressed to find anyone who doesn’t respect the 1k Chocera.
The grits lower than 1000 are called Beston, and the grits 1000 and above are called Bester. Don’t ask me why. Many people think these stones are the best value. Fast cutting, decent feel, but still relatively inexpensive. They need to soaked for at least 30 minutes, although longer might be better. They can safely be stored in water so they are always ready to go.
$48 at Chef Knives to Go
Comes in two grits, 1000 and 6000. The 1000 is very similar to a Bester. The 6000 is a very common medium fine stone used for either finishing or as an intermediate for very fine polishing. It’s very highly regarded. It’s effective grit varies base on how the stone and mud is used. It’s also marketed as a Taekono 8,000. (Sold on the Bester page at Chefknives to go.)
1000 – $44 at Chef Knives to Go
6000 – $63 at Chef Knives to Go
This stones functional grit also varies based on how it’s used, ranging from 3,000 to 5,000. Can be used in place of the 6000 Arashiyama. Not quite as highly regarded as the Arashiyama but $15 cheaper. (Sold on the Bester page at Chefknives to go.)
5000 $49 at Chef Knives to Go
This is an 8,000 stone that also seems higher depending on how the mud is worked. More of a polisher than a sharpener.
$78 at Chef Knives to Go
Shapton Glass and Shapton Professional
Used to be considered the bomb but seem to have a reputation for being somewhat unforgiving. Got the impression that some people still love them, but there are better stones out there. Some people think they polish better than sharpen. What do I know?
$57 at Chef Knives to Go
Gesshin is the name for Japanese Knife Imports house brand. The stones are made specifically for JKI. They have a reputation for being excellent (fast, smooth, and good feel), but they are more expensive.
1200 $75 at Japanese Knife Imports
So…what stones should I get?
Well, just like knives, it’s very personal. The absolute cheapest in a King Combination Stone. The “best” is probably Chosera or Gesshin. I prefer the “bang for the buck” approach going for the Bester/Arashiyama or Bester/Suehiro Rika combination.
As for grits, it’s generally recommended to get a 1000 or 1200 to start and a 4,000-6000 to finish. Once you’re good and consistent at that combination, then you can get a more aggressive 400-600 for faster reshaping and repairs. Once your consistent with your start combo, then you could get a finer stone for polishing, but for general kitchen use, you really shouldn’t need anything higher than the 4,000-6,000 range. Although like everything else, it’s highly personal.
You know, this is getting awfully expensive.
Okay, get the King 1000 for $23, or the Bester or Arashiyama 1000 $for $45-$50 and nothing else. After a year or two of practice, then if you feel the need, buy a 4000-6000 stone. At $73 for the Tojiro DP plus $45 for the stone, you’re still under the price of a Wusthof Classic 8 inch; you still have a far superior knife, and in a year, you’ll have far superior sharpening skills.
There is a lot of sharpening stone advice in these threads. I’ve posted a few excerpts below, but there’s a lot more in the threads.
Time to get a new knife. Suggestions?
Sharpening Stone Advice
Tojiro DP F-809 240mm gyuto. A good budget entry level intro to japanese knives?
“My advice is not to get too creative at first and just put together a decent kit based around regular bench stones or an Edge Pro. Stones are making you crazy because you’re overthinking and overcomplicating. But anything will do that, as it’s intrinsic to your nature and not to the stones’.
Get a Bester 1.2K and either a Suehiro Rika or Takenoko [aka Arashiyama 6k]. The Rika is very pleasant and easy; the Takenoko is both faster and finer. When you can hold an angle well enough to get a good edge with either of those two, add a Beston 500. The need will arrive at around the same time as the ability. Flatten on drywall screen until you feel you can afford a DMT XXC. Later, if you have a hankering for a really fine polish we can talk 8Ks and finer; but for now, not a worry. Yes. It’s that simple.”
BDL from another thread:
“If you’re going to put up with all of the water stone BS to go with a Takenoko, you might as well buy a medium/coarse water stone such as a Bester 1200 for basic sharpening. There are other very good 1K choices, but the Bester is the cream of the crop at or near a semi-reasonable price. Bester 1200/Takenoko is an awesome combination for the heart of a water stone kit. Add a Beston 500 and a Kitayama, and you’ve got something good enough to compete with any kit, no matter how expensive.
If I were choosing an ultimate water stone kit for me, it would be just three stones: Gesshin 400, 2K and 8K. That’s a very easy set to use and very fast; but too expensive for anyone who doesn’t see sharpening as a sort of hobby and end in itself. Just because I obsess, doesn’t mean you should.”
The importance of flattening by boar_d_laze
Flattening is no big deal just tedious — It’s especially easy (not to mention more tedious) if you flatten on screen rather than using a diamond plate. I flatten on dry-wall screen mounted in a sheet pan, cleaning the screen with the sink’s pressure hose when it loads up. The pan contains the mess. Since a lifetime supply of screen is about $10, it’s not a bad thing to start out with it and no big deal if you change your mind and decide you want to invest $80 in a DMT XXC.
In addition to flattening them right OOTB, you’ll also need to bevel the sides of the Besters (as with all normal waterstones). This means holding the well soaked stone at a 45* angle to the flattening surface (or the flattener at a 45* angle to the stone) and rubbing back and forth. Oh dear.
The Besters require about 30 minutes of soaking before they’re usable, and more than an hour before they’re at their juicy best. Is that an issue?
Understand that people buy stones without knowing how to prep them before using or even that they need prep at all. And when that lack of knowledge creates problems (right away!) they call Mark and kvetch. Mark, no doubt, is basing his recommendation on the stones which give the fewest problems to the masses. But you’re not the masses. You have the wisdom of Chef Talk.
I’m not much of a fan of the GS series in any case. My verdict is more shine than sharp. They are fast, convenient, and the bevels they make truly gleam, but at the end of the day I think you get better edges on less expensive stones. Consequently, I disagree with Mark and think you’d be better off starting with the Bester than with the GS.
If you don’t want to deal with the inconvenience of soaking and flattening, and if you’ve got any anxiety about other aspects of the bench stone learning curve, you might just buy an Edge Pro and be done with it. They do a really good job, and other than set up and take down are practically painless.
You’re better off learning to sharpen before buying new knives, but only slightly so. Learning to sharpen takes time and commitment, yes. But it’s not particularly difficult, it doesn’t take much talent or brains (look at me), it just sort of happens if you do it enough. The big thing might be demonstrating to yourself that you can and will so that when you do buy an expensive knife you’re beyond the point of allowing it to get dull, feeling overwhelmed, and losing interest.
Also, it helps to ease the blow to the budget to invest in one thing at a time. And if you want to prioritize, good sharpening trumps a good knife. People so often want to buy a $200 knife plus sharpening gear and a steel for $225 (and if I get that a lot, you can imagine how often Mark does). Unfortunately…
Consider though that unless you’re using coarse stones, you really can’t do much damage. So as long as you have the commitment to learn to sharpen, there isn’t that much downside to learning on a good knife. Also, some knives do better than others with certain sharpening kits. For instance, you’ll get a lot more from a Bester sharpening a MAC Pro than you will sharpening a Mercer. And fwiw, the Mercer will actually sharpen better on oilstones.
Since he features so prominently in this thread, I might as well mention that Mark really cares about matching you with stuff you’re going to be able to use right off the bat and will like for a long time. He’s not going to hose you in order to make an extra buck.
Lots to confuse, no?
PS. If you’re going the bench stone route… Yes, I’d start with the Bester 1.2K and the Arashiyama. Learn to draw a burr on the Bester before even attempting the Arashiyama. That will probably take four or five tries. After you’ve become sufficiently adept at angle holding to consistently actually sharpen with the Arashiyama, you can move on to using a coarse stone like the Beston 500 — which you’ll eventually need — for profiling. You should be doing minor profiling to the extent of flattening the high spots, which are an inevitable part of ordinary sharpening, once for every four or five times you use the 1.2K. For home cooks, that means every year or so.
I use the coarsest screen for flattening — which IIRC is 80, then lap with a 220. After flattening my 3K, I lap it with screen then the 1.2K. After flattening my 8K lap it with the 1.2K, then the 3K. Lapping stone doesn’t take much pressure or many strokes. Of course everything must be properly wet — in the case of my stone that means at least an hour of soaking for the Beston and Bester, and about 10 minutes for the Chosera and SS.
When you lap stone on stone, do it under water and keep the stones moving to make sure they don’t stick together. This is a big problem. It’s a lot like a tongue sticking to a frozen fence not only in the sticking but in that you should take it on faith and not check it out for yourself.
If your following and finer stone is 4K or coarser, the 1K is great; but I’d hold out for the 1.2K if the next stone is 6K or coarser. It won’t be more than a few weeks of waiting at most; and you’ll have the stone for years.
It’s not going to make a great deal of difference either way.
FWIW: 1) I do not flatten in a pan filled with water. I flatten — or used to do so until a couple of weeks ago — on dry wall screen set in a baking sheet. I rinsed the screen frequently with the sink’s pressure hose to keep it from loading up. But I was given a DMT XXC for Channukah. 2) It’s important — but not critical to lap your finer stones before using them. And 3) Yes, I left the sheet and and screen flat on the counter parallel to the horizon while holding the stone at an angle relative to it. Beveling the stone’s edges is critical. It keeps the edges from forming “rails” and keeps the edges and corners from crumbling. Not only are those things bad for the stone, but they cause a variety of problems with the knife edge as well.
- Primer on Japanese Knives
- Choosing your first Japanese knife
- Review of my first Japanese knife, the Tojiro DP 240mm gyuto
- Sharpening process and tips
- Vendors, Experts, and Forum Denizens
When I was young, I bought Wusthof knives because, of course, they were so much superior to Henckels. I knew there were better knives in the world, especially from Japan, but they seemed to cost my firstborn, and I didn’t really know how to buy them in the first place, so I was happy with my selection. Soon after (but not soon enough to return the Wusthofs) the Japanese invaded a Bed Bath and Beyond near you with a little help from Alton Brown. I had a strong case of Shun-lust, but being the practical, thrifty person that I am, I made do.
Fast forward *cough* years, and I needed a second chef’s knife for when someone else is helping me cook. Naturally I knew that this was my chance to acquire a Japanese knife. So a week of underslept nights later, I purchased my first Japanese knife. (Review to come.)
I will be documenting what I found in a series of posts, so that I don’t have to do it again, and perhaps it will help you, dear reader, acquire a Japanese instrument of cutting joy more quickly than I did.
Most of the advice below will focus on a “single go-to” knife for the largest variety of kitchen tasks. Generally, this will be a replacement for a chef’s knife (or santoku for those of you who have bought into the hype).
I am synthesizing a huge amount of reading, much of it gleaned from forums. As forums are volatile things with a tendency to go belly up—Fred’s Cutlery Forum, one of the highest rated knife forums, died about a year ago, taking most of its knowledge with it—I will quote directly from some of the posts I deem most helpful.” I will link back to the forum (if still in existence).
What’s wrong with my Wusthofs or Henckels?
- The main problem with them is their country of origin. German knives are known for two things in general.
- The German profile has a large curve in the blade that prevents most of the cutting surface from touching the board at the same time. It also makes it so that you have to lift the handle very high to get the tip to touch the board. (That said, plenty of very good cutters prefer the German profile, and the German profile is considered more forgiving of bad technique.)
- The second problem is that they tend to be made from a very tough, relatively soft steel that can stand up to a lot of punishment but doesn’t get exceptionally sharp or stay sharp.
- Most of the retail sets come with 8 inch chef knives that are just too short for some tasks. A 10 inch would probably be a better choice.
So what are the alternatives?
- The French profile chef knife is much flatter, allowing for more efficient cutting motions. The classic brand is Sabatier who’s older knives are legendary but seem to have lost some quality in more recent years.
- The other alternative is a gyuto, the Japanese take on a chef knife with a more French profile. They come as either Wa (traditional handle) or Yo (Western handle). The wa-gyutos have a reputation for being lighter.
- The general recommendation is a gyuto in 240mm (9.4 inches) or 270mm (10.6 inches).
What to look for?
- The main thing to look for is a quality steel. You want something around 60 or a little higher on the Rockwell scale. Much below 60, and the knife won’t take or hold the edge you want. Too high, and the knife becomes too brittle for the general kitchen use we’re after (although not inappropriate for special use knives). So look for 60 plus, and then the look at the reputation of the knife for being brittle. Not all steels at the same hardness are equal in terms of strength and brittleness.
- When it comes to raw performance, carbon steel is generally regarded as the best, but it is prone to rust and pit without proper maintenance and can impart a metallic taste to some acidic foods. Not all carbon steels are created equal, so you still have to do your homework. As for “proper maintenance”, mainly, wipe it off as soon as you use it, especially if you’re cutting acidic food such as limes. Carbon steel will also form a patina that can protect the steel from corrosion but some people think it’s icky.
- Stainless steels are easier to maintain, but can’t quite match the edge that carbon steels have. Stainless blades can be clad (san mei) or monosteel. Clad blades have a core of a harder steel sandwiched between two plates of softer steel. The harder steel provides the edge, while the softer steel provides additional strength. Some people think that sandwiched knives feel flat or dead on the cutting board, as though you’re wearing thick gloves; others don’t notice at all or notice but aren’t bothered by it.
- There used to be a big quality difference between forged and stamped knives. However, modern heat treatment and hardening has rendered the difference largely moot. In fact, stamped can be better because it is lighter, causing less fatigue when used for longer periods of time. (Please note this is only for higher end knives. At the low end, forged is still probably better than stamped.)
Anything else I should know?
- The harder steels of Japanese knives require a more refined sharpening system–using waterstones. Be aware that stones take practice, and if you only cook in your home and care for your knives, you might not be sharpening very often, so it may be difficult to get enough practice in to become good. One suggestion is to get a “beater knife” made from carbon steel and practice sharpening it. There are also guided sharpening systems out there that take some of the art out of sharpening but don’t require much skill. Whatever you do, do not send your Japanese knives to any commercial sharpener who uses a grinding wheel on them. Sharpening and waterstones are such a big topic that I’m going to do two separate posts on them.
- Any steel above 60 HRC may be damaged by steeling (even with a super fine steel), so 1) consider not steeling, or 2) make sure you have a very fine steel; 3) be VERY gentle when/if steeling and don’t bang the knife against the steel.
Can’t you be bevel-headed about this?
- Japanese knives come in two major forms: single and double bevel.
- A double beveled knife is sharpened on both sides of the blade. This is also how most Western knives are sharpened. Double bevel knives may sharpened symmetrically, with even amounts of sharpening on both sides, or they may be beveled unevenly, so that one side has received more sharpening than the other. In addition to changing perceived sharpness, it may also affect how long the knife will stay sharp, and may favor left vs right hand cutters. Changing the asymmetry is as easy as sharpening one side longer than the other.
- Single bevel knives are only sharpened on side, and the other is straight or even slightly concave. Single bevel is also called a chisel edge, because—well—it looks like a chisel. Single bevel knives can cut extremely flat because one side is completely flat, and are usually sharper than double bevel knives. Most single bevel knives are cut for right handers, so if you’re a lefty, you may have to pay a premium for a single bevel knife that will work for you.
- Primary, secondary, and microbevels: These are actually sharpening topics and will be covered in another article.
Just to refresh your memory, we’re looking at Gyutos (all purpose chef knives). One small caveat. Because of the hardness of Japanese steel and thinness of most of these knives, cutting through bone is generally not recommended with most of these knives. So they’re really “most purpose” not truly all-purpose.